Animal bites for child
If the bite is on the face or head or if the skin is torn, see a doctor immediately. Wash other wounds with soap and hold under running cold water for two to three minutes unless there is heavy bleeding. If possible, find out if the animal has been inoculated against rabies and if in doubt inform your doctor at once.
If the animal is wild, an attempt should be made to catch it so that tests can be done to establish if it is in fact rabid.
Human bites are always dangerous because they can easily become infected. Wash well with soap and water and apply a sterile dressing. Any bite that shows signs of infection such as redness, swelling or pus must be treated by a doctor.
Artificial respiration If breathing has stopped, apply artificial respiration immediately.
1. Ensure that the tongue is not obstructing the airway by lying the child on her back and lifting her chin slightly.
2. Check again to see if breathing has started. Put your face next to the childs mouth and nose to feel if there is any movement of air.
3. Watch her chest to see if it is moving.
For an infant (See sketch a p. 268.)
1. Slide one hand under her shoulders so that her head tilts back slightly.
2. Take a deep breath and put your mouth over her mouth and nose.
3. Breathe out gently into her nose and mouth.
4. Watch to see that her chest rises as her lungs fill with air. Repeat the procedure every three seconds by blowing air into her lungs.
If you cannot see the chest rise and fall there must be an obstruction.
1. Hold the child upside down by her legs and strike sharply between the shoulder blades.
2. Remove any foreign matter from the mouth.
3. Continue giving artificial respiration without stopping until she starts breathing unaided and help arrives. After breathing is established, place in recovery position in case of vomiting. (See p. 269)
For an older child or adult (See sketch b p. 268.)
1. Lie the child on her back and tilt her head back by raising her neck.
2. Check to see if she is breathing by putting your face near her mouth and nose to feel any movement of air.
3. Watch her chest to see if it moves.
4. Take a deep breath and pinch her nostrils closed with your fingers.
5. Put your mouth over her mouth while keeping the nostrils pinched closed.
6. Blow into her mouth until you see the chest rise.
7. Remove your mouth and watch her chest fall as she breathes out.
8. Repeat every five seconds or in the natural rhythm of your breathing.
If the chest does not rise and fall there must be an obstruction.
1. Sit the child up and put your arms around her from behind (see sketch p. 269).
2. Clasp your hands together under the breastbone.
3. Press sharply upwards into the chest so that anything stuck in the windpipe is forced out.
4. Check for any foreign objects in the mouth.
5. Continue with the artificial respiration until she starts breathing unaided and help arrives. Once breathing has started, place her in recovery position (269) in case of vomiting.
Do not put antiseptic on the wound.
1. Wash with cold water.
2. Press the edges of the wound together for a few minutes.
3. If the bleeding does not stop, pad with a sterile dressing or, if the wound is large, use a folded clean cloth or sanitary towel.
4. Apply firm pressure directly on the wound. Hold in place for 15 minutes.
If the bleeding has not stopped and the pad is soaked, put another pad on top of it.
Do not remove the first pad, but continue to add pads and keep up the pressure on the wound.
Do not apply a tourniquet.
Keep the area that is bleeding raised if possible. If bleeding does not seem to be stopping, even with continuous firm pressure, get to a doctor or hospital immediately, if you are not on your way already.
Blows to the nose
Blows to the nose can result in displacement which needs expert attention, otherwise permanent damage such as a skew septum can result. Keep the child calm and apply a cold cloth to the area to reduce swelling. If the doctor suspects there may be a fracture he will want to X-ray the area. If necessary a surgeon will set the nose, usually waiting for the swelling to subside before treating the injury.
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