Motivation For Weight Loss And Exercise

Bringing It Together

Recent increases in concussion rates, mostly at the high school level, are likely due to increased awareness and better detection of these injuries. Studies now include a more comprehensive definition of concussion, which allows for more broad identification of the injuries. Recent literature highlights that females, compared to matched-sport male counterparts, may be more than twice as likely to suffer a concussion. There are now more links than ever illustrating association with potential long-term effects after concussion that leave many clinicians and athletes questioning just how mild an injury may truly be when recovery is considered. A combination of assessments provides the best evaluation procedure for concussion and should be undertaken prior to participation and multiple times during recovery.

Sudden Cardiac Death

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the term used for any fatality resulting from an infarction or stoppage of the heart due to structural or electrical disturbance. SCD is the leading cause of sudden death in high school and collegiate athletes.8 Structural abnormalities are often found postmortem and are signs of underlying pathology. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), in which the ventricular wall and/or septum is abnormally enlarged, is the most common cause of SCD.9,10

Commotio cordis and coronary artery abnormalities, defects in the location or structure of the arteries supplying blood to the myocardium, are the second and third most prevalent causes of SCD.1,10 Commotio cordis is a traumatic hit to the chest or thorax that causes ventricular arrhythmia upon absorbing impact. Structural defects represent the most common form of sudden cardiac pathology. However, commotio cordis remains a potential in sports with fast-moving projectiles (hockey, baseball, softball, lacrosse, etc) and collisions between players.10

Other developing or congenital pathologies may affect cardiac function, including mitral valve prolapse, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, etc. The most common underlying conditions that predispose one to SCD are myocarditis, Marfan syndrome, ventricular dysplasia, and valvular heart disease.7 Marfan syndrome, for example, leads to aortic enlargement secondary to excessive production of connective tissue. When the aorta enlarges, it can occlude blood flow or cause excessive ventricular contractility, either of which can lead to fatality. Because accurate diagnosis is so critical and the possibility of multiple conditions exists, any athlete who presents with signs or symptoms should be referred for testing to accurately diagnose the cause.8

Motivation For Weight Loss And Exercise Photo Gallery

Incidence of Sudden Cardiac Death

Over a 5-year span, 16% of deaths in college athletes were the result of cardiac pathology. The annual incidence of SCD is 1/43,770.6 Basketball players have the greatest risk among all NCAA athletes for SCD. Male Division I athletes had an incidence of 1/3126 from 2004 to 2008.6 Given that there are 350 NCAA Division I institutions with more than 10 players per team, this represents more than 1 cardiac death per year in Division I men’s basketball. Other divisions of basketball presented decreased risk.6

In high school and collegiate football, the incidence of SCD has been 0.41/100,000 participants since 1990.10 The risk is much higher in college football players (86%) compared to high school football players (14%). This equates to a relative risk that is 100% greater in college compared to high school football players with SCD. Unfortunately, the specific cause of SCD is unknown in about 63% of fatalities due to differences in how data were recorded.10

Athletes from all sports need appropriate medical care because all are at risk. For example, there were 4 SCDs in a 19-year span in male cross country, basketball, and wrestling.11 SCD is not isolated to basketball and football athletes.

Motivation For Weight Loss And Exercise

Maybe You Like Them Too

Leave a Reply

+ 37 = 45